During the late s, the Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini spoke with increasing urgency about imperial expansion, arguing that Italy needed an outlet for its " surplus population " and that it would therefore be in the best interests of other countries to aid in this expansion. There were designs for a protectorate over Albania and for the annexation of Dalmatiaas well as economic and military control of Yugoslavia and Greece. The regime also sought to establish protective patron—client relationships with AustriaHungaryRomania and Bulgariawhich all lay on the outside edges of its European sphere of influence. The campaign gave rise to optimistic talk on raising a native Ethiopian army "to help conquer" Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Churchill declined because he felt that even with American help the British did not have adequate forces for such a strike,  and he wished to avoid costly frontal assaults such as those that had occurred at the Somme and Passchendaele in World War I.
As Brittany and Cotentin are peninsulas, the Germans could have cut off the Allied advance at a relatively narrow isthmus, so these sites were rejected. Normandy was therefore chosen as the landing site. The two generals immediately insisted on expanding the scale of the initial invasion to five divisions, with airborne descents by three additional divisions, to allow operations on a wider front and to speed up the capture of the port at Cherbourg.
The need to acquire or produce extra landing craft for the expanded operation meant delaying the invasion until June Under the Transport Plancommunications infrastructure and road and rail links were bombed to cut off the north of France and to make it more difficult to bring up reinforcements.
These attacks were widespread so as to avoid revealing the exact location of the invasion. Eight further sectors were added when the invasion was extended to include Utah on the Cotentin Peninsula. Sectors were further subdivided into beaches identified by the colours Green, Red, and White. The initial goal was to capture Carentan, IsignyBayeuxand Caen.
The Americans, assigned to land at Utah and Omaha, were to cut off the Cotentin Peninsula and capture the port facilities at Cherbourg.
Possession of Caen and its surroundings would give the Anglo-Canadian forces a suitable staging area for a push south to capture the town of Falaise. A secure lodgement would be established and an attempt made to hold all territory captured north of the Avranches -Falaise line during the first three weeks.
The Allied armies would then swing left to advance towards the River Seine. Photos of the coastline were taken at extremely low altitude to show the invaders the terrain, obstacles on the beach, and defensive structures such as bunkers and gun emplacements.
To avoid alerting the Germans as to the location of the invasion, this work had to be undertaken over the entire European coastline. Inland terrain, bridges, troop emplacements, and buildings were also photographed, in many cases from several angles, to give the Allies as much information as possible.
Information collected by the French resistance helped provide details on Axis troop movements and on construction techniques used by the Germans for bunkers and other defensive installations.
A team of code breakers stationed at Bletchley Park worked to break codes as quickly as possible to provide advance information on German plans and troop movements.
British military intelligence code-named this information Ultra intelligence as it could only be provided to the top level of commanders.
German intelligence changed the Enigma codes right after the Allied landings of 6 June but by 17 June the Allies were again consistently able to read them. To supplement the preliminary offshore bombardment and aerial assaults, some of the landing craft were equipped with artillery and anti-tank guns to provide close supporting fire.
Each assembly consisted of a floating outer breakwaterinner concrete caissons called Phoenix breakwaters and several floating piers. Specially developed pipes 3 inches 7.
Technical problems and the delay in capturing Cherbourg meant the pipeline was not operational until 22 September. A second line was laid from Dungeness to Boulogne in late October.
Examples include the Sherman Crab tank equipped with a mine flailthe Churchill Crocodile a flame-throwing tankand the Armoured Ramp Carrierwhich other tanks could use as a bridge to scale sea-walls or to overcome other obstacles. The " bobbin " tank would overcome this problem by deploying a roll of matting over the soft surface and leaving the material in place as a route for more conventional tanks.
Military deception In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted Operation Bodyguardthe overall strategy designed to mislead the Germans as to the date and location of the main Allied landings.
A fictitious First U. The Allies constructed dummy tanks, trucks, and landing craft, and positioned them near the coast.
Several military units, including II Canadian Corps and 2nd Canadian Divisionmoved into the area to bolster the illusion that a large force was gathering there. One American general was sent back to the United States in disgrace after revealing the invasion date at a party.Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
The operation was launched on 6 June with the Normandy landings (Operation Neptune, commonly known as D-Day). Jun 06, · World War II enthusiasts sit on a tank during a parade in Sainte-Mere-Eglise, France, on June 3, , during a ceremony marking the 74th anniversary of the D-Day World War II .
Watch video · Early reports: The first issue of TIME after D-Day—published on June 12, —included several stories about the invasion, one of which focused on how Americans reacted to early news that the “greatest military undertaking in history” had launched.
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II. Strategic bombing is a military strategy which is distinct from both close air support of ground forces and tactical air power..
During World War II, it was believed by many military strategists of air power that. Of the 16 million U.S. soldiers who served in World War Two, only million are still alive, leaving an ageing population to tell their stories from D-Day and other campaigns. The participation of Italy in the Second World War was characterized by a complex framework of ideology, politics, and diplomacy, while its military actions were often heavily influenced by external factors.
Italy joined the war as one of the Axis Powers in , as the French surrendered, with a plan to concentrate Italian forces on a major offensive against the British Empire in Africa and.