For over 25 years, Risbo has maintained its position as a leading institute of high quality scientific research in the Netherlands and Europe. Risbo is divided into four different departments:
Disclaimer Tuberculosis control and economic recession: Correspondence to David Stuckler email: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; Despite these concerns, several member states of the European Union have introduced user fees or budget cuts to infectious disease programmes since the onset of the recession.
Estonia reduced health-care spending after the recession began but protected spending on the detection of communicable diseases.
We then use mathematical models that account for the nonlinear dynamics of tuberculosis, to simulate the consequences of economic changes on the future trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence and mortality.
At the time of our analysis, data on public health spending were available for 24 of the 28 member states. Data were not available for Belgium, Greece, Romania and Slovakia because these member states either lack a specific budget line or do not report disaggregated expenditure data to EuroStat.
As we excluded Cyprus, Luxembourg and Malta because of their small population sizes, most of our final analyses were based on the data from 21 member states available from corresponding author. We estimated case detection rates as the proportion of annual tuberculosis incidence that was reported in case notification data.
Statistical models In the first step of our analysis, we quantified the extent to which rates of tuberculosis case detection and treatment success changed across the European Union, using equation 1: Case detection rates for the previous 12 months were based on the estimated proportion of new smear-positive cases that had been detected across all 21 of our study countries.
Treatment success rates were estimated separately for smear-negative, smear-positive and re-treatment cases of tuberculosis. In a third step, the severity of recession was based on the cumulative decline in GDP for each country during the recession.
For all of our econometric models, we adjusted for time trends and country-specific fixed effects.
Models were investigated using Stata version 13 StataCorp. Mathematical models and simulations To forecast tuberculosis incidence, prevalence and mortality in each of our study countries, we applied the findings from the preceding econometric models to dynamic mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission and mortality.
The mathematical models simulated longitudinal tuberculosis rates in each country — given the data on case detection observed before, during and after the financial crisis — as well as a counterfactual scenario in which case detection was unaffected by either the recession or the related austerity.
The modelling approach we followed was derived from standardized models that are commonly used in tuberculosis modelling and have been described elsewhere. We used a Markov chain, Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate transmission of tuberculosis within each of our study countries.
For calibration, we used the corresponding longitudinal trajectory seen in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence and mortality between and available from corresponding author.
We then compared the observed scenario in which case detection rates dropped during austerity — including the modelled tuberculosis outcomes for — — with the counterfactual scenario in which case detection rates followed the same linear trends as those that occurred before the onset of the recession.
We used sensitivity and uncertainty analyses to examine the robustness of the modelled results.Political turbulence will open the way for both negative and positive economic outcomes in Protectionism and isolationism will be offset by optimistic and improved growth signals; will be dominated by predictable unpredictability, according to SEB economists in the February issue of the quarterly Nordic Outlook report.
Belarus is a member of Eurasian integration projects like the Eurasian Economic Union, despite criticism of them from government figures including President Alyaksandr Lukashenka and the lack of practical benefits from membership.
A BA (Bachelor of Arts) is a popular undergraduate degree that provides the education necessary for many types of careers. A BA also prepares students for advanced paths of study, such as a master’s or doctorate degree.
Policies Towards Foreign Direct Investment.
Poland welcomes foreign investment as a source of capital, growth, and jobs, and as a vehicle for technology transfer, research and development (R&D), and integration into global supply chains.
In late February Poroshenko was named as the new Minister of Trade and Economic Development in the Azarov Government; on 9 March President Yanukovych stated he wanted Poroshenko to work in the government in the post of economic development and trade minister.
Note that Lithuania has regulated important aspects of the relation between national law and EU law in the Constitutional Act on Membership of the Republic of Lithuania in the European Union of July 13, According to section 2, EU law shall be a constituent part of the legal system of the Republic of Lithuania.