Healthcare systems are complex and there are many things you need to know about types of hospital systems, patient care, insurance, healthcare providers and legal issues. This tutorial will help you learn basic healthcare concepts so you can be successful on the job and understand the system.
UHC for a country may be defined as access, on equal terms, for all citizens to a specified package of the highest quality health care that country can afford without any citizens suffering financial hardship as a result.
It does not preclude citizens from purchasing — with their own funds—additional, elective services such as cosmetic surgery, orthodontics, private hospital rooms, et cetera. UHC An introduction to the importance of universal healthcare important as a means to fight poverty in the age of deepening income inequality worldwide, recently highlighted dramatically in the important work on wealth and income inequality by the French economist Thomas Piketty in his book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century.
Nations go to great lengths and spare no financial resources to fight terrorism. Someday even the well off and well insured may come to realize that drug-resistant infectious diseases are biological terrorists.
In a real sense, fighting this enemy should be viewed as part of national defense and global health security. It can also lead to a serious misallocation of resources. First, UHC does not require a universally applicable package of health care services that must be covered.
Access to health care in the U. Second, there is the problem that equal financial access that may be facilitated by health insurance does not necessarily mean equal physical access to high quality health care. Health insurance holds an empty promise if there are physical barriers to health care, high quality or not.
Third, it is not clear that the egalitarian precepts that are relevant and economically feasible in countries with a high per-capita income and a low inequality or Gini coefficientthat is, a relatively equal distribution of income—as in Taiwan, for example—can arbitrarily be imposed on countries with lower GDP per capita but high Gini coefficients, a combination prevalent in much of the developing world, including China.
A multi-tier health system with an adequate level of care for the poor may be better than an ideal, egalitarian system that cannot be achieved. These are more than pedantic points. Far too much effort has been made by the governments of western developed countries, and by profit seeking enterprises, to bring to low- and middle-income countries highly sophisticated but also highly expensive health care that those countries simply cannot afford.
Economists recognize this as the age-old concept of opportunity costs, a concept which has become increasingly familiar to health policy makers also.
The opportunity cost of highly sophisticated health care within resource-constrained health systems may be high morbidity and premature death among poor people.
Health policy analysts and policy makers must be realistic when working within socio-economic constraints. Practically, in terms of global health programs, this means that the approach should be Rawlsian.
A focus mainly on low-income families within countries would have two consequences. First, it would stress the important role of public health and primary care in improving the health status of the population.
Second, it would put into sharper focus the importance of the non-medical determinants of health. There is a well-known trade-off between health care proper and education, especially the education of women, as Chicago economist and Nobel laureate James Heckman would argue.
A focus mainly on the plight of the poor in health care also would draw attention to the crucial importance of maternal and child health and nutrition in driving the health of populations.
Moving Towards UHC With the preceding having been duly noted, it can be asked how best to approach UHC for specified benefit packages and in a specific social, economic and political context. One begins this process by clearly articulating the distributional ethic that the health system is supposed to observe.
As noted, that ethic is apt to depend on the degree of income inequality in a country. Second, there has to be a clear definition on the package of benefits that is to be financed through insurance coverage. Financing UHC In regards to financing, one must note that neither government nor employers nor commercial health insurance companies actually ever finance anything.
They may pay health care providers for health care delivered, but they will always recoup these outlays fully from private households in the forms of taxes, premiums, or reduction in take-home pay.Universal health care is a moral necessity, as a lack of universal access to even the most basic of services severely threatens the morality of any developed society.
The Case for Universal Health Care INTRODUCTION Over the last few decades, the United States has witnessed skyrocketing health care costs. Health insurance premiums have been rising on average by double-digit. Even though most developed countries have implemented some form of universal public health insurance, most studies on the impact of the health insurance coverage have been limited to specific subpopulations, such as infants and children, the elderly or the poor.
Arguing for Universal Health Coverage | III Arguing for Universal INTROdUCTION p. 6 WHAT IS UNIVeRSAl HeAlTH COVeRAge? p. 9 WHy IS MOVINg TOWARdS UNIVeRSAl HeAlTH HOW CAN COUNTRIeS ACCeleRATe pROgReSS TOWARdS UNIVeRSAl HeAlTH COVeRAge?
p. 16 = The importance of human rights and equity in filling the UHC box p. 18 HOW CAN HeAlTH. Federal Study Highlights Importance of Universal Health Insurance Coverage May 20, A new report from the Department of Health and Human Services produces a result which most people would call common sense: uninsured Americans can’t afford health care.
Introduction to the Healthcare System. Hospitals, clinic and community health agencies can be very different from other work environments. Healthcare systems are complex and there are many things you need to know about types of hospital systems, patient care, insurance, healthcare providers and .